JV587 (Indigent and Savory)

INDIGENT (adjective)
extremely poor, Experiencing want or need; impoverished, lacking the necessities of life, e.g. food, clothing, and shelter

Synonyms: destitute, impoverished, needy

Antonyms: affluent, wealthy

Tips: Indigent is derived from the Latin indigere, literally meaning “to lack in,” which comes from egere, “to need.” Indigent is used to describe a person or group of people who are so poor they can’t help themselves and need the help and support of others.

– The United Nations has a history of helping indigent countries through humanitarian and economic programs.
– Those who are indigent can often receive help at their local shelter.
– The charity was formed to help feed the indigent people starving in Africa.
– The once-indigent young man worked his way from living on the streets to being one of the most affluent people in the community.

SAVORY (adjective)
1. pleasant to taste or smell; 2. salty or sharp-tasting rather than sweet 3. respectable and socially acceptable

Synonyms: pleasing, tasty, delectable, delicious, scrumptious, palatable, respectable

Antonyms: inedible, disgusting, yucky

Tips: The related verb, to savor, means “to greatly enjoy and fully appreciate.” Savory foods are ones you want to savor. Something that is sweet and savory is sweet and spicy or salty. Some people like to dip their bacon into their maple syrup because they enjoy the sweet and savory combination.

All the dishes at the party were savory; I couldn’t pick just one favorite.
After his arrest for embezzlement, his reputation became anything but savory.
The dinner was so delicious I savored every bite.
The combination of cheese and apples made for a sweet and savory flavor.

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JV586 (Repertoire and Vigilant)

REPERTOIRE (noun) The stock promo of songs, plays, operas, readings, or other pieces that a player or company is prepared to perform. The class of compositions in a genre: has excellent command of the chanteuse repertoire. The range or number of skills, aptitudes, or special accomplishments of a particular person or group: a collection of works of art; 2. the range of skills of a person or group

Synonyms: collection, list, range, repository, stock, supply, repertory

Tips: Repertoire is derived from Late Latin repertorium, which means “inventory.” A repertoire is like an inventory of plays, songs, or skills, wich can be used or brought forth at any time .

– Jimmy had hundreds of songs in his repertoire.
– After Jakob completed the class, he was able to add typing to his repertoire of skills.
– Lizzy is always looking for good recipes to add to her repertoire of delicious dishes.
– The actor’s repertoire included many accents, which allowed him to play foreign characters.
– The Royal Shakespeare Company also have many modern plays in their repertoire.
– There is an extensive repertoire of music written for the flute.

VIGILANT (adjective) watchful and attentive to real or potential danger, watchful and alert, especially to guard against danger, difficulties, or errors

Synonyms: watchful, attentive, alert, on guard, cautious, wary

Antonyms: negligent, lax

– If you remain vigilant at all times, you are less likely to become a victim of crime.
– The vigilant security officer faithfully protected the building for many years.
– The store manager kept a vigilant eye on her inventory in order to prevent theft.
– I’m always vigilant about eating my vegetables in order to remain in good health.

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JV585 (Pungent and Stolid)

PUNGENT (adjective)
1. strong and sharp in taste or smell; 2. strong and biting in expression
2. Affecting the organs of taste or smell with a sharp acrid sensation.
a. Penetrating, biting, or caustic: pungent satire.
b. To the point; sharp: pungent talks during which the major issues were confronted.

Synonyms: bitter, tangy, tart, biting, spicy, sharp, caustic, cutting, penetrating
Antonyms: bland, sweet, mild

– The pungent smells from my kitchen permeated the neighborhood.
– The company used pungent commentary when referring to his competitor’s service.
– Because the barbecue sauce lacked pungency Jason added some onions and mustard.
– On of John’s favorite dishes is sweet and pungent tiger prawns.
– I sat down to a cup of wonderfully pungent Turkish coffee.

STOLID (adjective)
having or showing little or no emotion, not excitable: solemn, unemotional, and not easily excited or upset
Synonyms: unemotional, emotionless, stoic, impassive, unfeeling, staid, indifferent
Antonyms: emotional, sensitive, passionate

– Richard gave very stolid responses to the interviewer’s questions.
– Marc’s serious and stolid manner did not make him one of the most popular professor’s at the university.
– Stolid and impassive, the customs inspector listened to Joanne’s explanation.
– The house was decorated in a stolid manner that made it seem cold and unwelcoming.
– Mari was usually quite stolid, so I was surprised at her excitement over winning the award.
– The college is a stolid-looking building with no lawn.

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JV584 (Preclude and Spendthrift)

1. To make impossible, as by action taken in advance; prevent.
2. To exclude or prevent (someone) from a given condition or activity: to prevent something from happening, especially by action
Synonyms: inhibit, cease, discontinue, restrain, impede, interrupt, prevent,
Antonyms: allow, permit

– Hank’s warning will not preclude Andy from making the trip.
– At the meeting, the executives discussed ways to preclude unnecessary lawsuits.
– Harry’s contract precludes him from going to work for a competing company if he quits his job.
– Sally’s age was not a preclusion to her being accepted on the management course.
– The jury members were precluded from discussing the case with family members.

SPENDTHRIFT (noun, adjective) ?NOUN:
One who spends money recklessly or wastefully.
Wasteful or extravagant: spendthrift bureaucrats.

Synonyms: (n.) spender, high-roller, squanderer, (adj.) wasteful, careless, prodigal, profligate,

Antonyms: restrained, moderate, prudent, frugal

– Monique was a spendthrift who went shopping everyday and always bought expensive, designer clothes.
– Manual is not a spendthrift and he really has to think about his purchases.
– spendthrift consumers had amassed a mountain of debt on their credit cards and home loans
– The spendthrift was forced to file for bankruptcy because of his huge debts.

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JV583 (Myopic and Sodden)

MYOPIC (adjective) MYOPIA (noun)
1 short-sightedness. 2 lack of foresight or intellectual insight.
1. being nearsighted–having myopia; 2. lacking foresight or understanding
Synonyms: nearsighted, short-sighted, narrow-minded, closed-minded
Antonyms: provident

– While the Dutch coach saw the less successful team as being capable of developing future talent, the fans were more myopic, wanting only to win now
– Marc’s myopic refusal to act now will undoubtedly cause problems in the future.
– The myopic child was reluctant to participate in school because he could not clearly see the blackboard.
– The minister had a very myopic vision for the country and he neglected to address future problems like Social Security and Employment.
– Jane’s myopic and unimaginative thinking never produced any great ideas for the company.

SODDEN (adjective) thoroughly and completely wet,
Thoroughly soaked; saturated.
Soggy and heavy from improper cooking; doughy.
Expressionless, stupid, or dull, especially from drink.
Unimaginative; torpid.

Synonyms: wet, drenched, soaked, saturated, doused, sopped, steeped
Antonyms: dry, parched, arid

– The soccer game was canceled because of the rain; the field was simply too sodden for play.
– After the flood, residents had to clean up their sodden homes and belongings.
– I got caught in a rainstorm on my way to school, and there was no way to dry my sodden clothes.
– After walking though the forest after the rain, my shoes and socks were sodden.
– It rained very hard and Mari’s thin coat quickly became sodden.

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JV582 (Intransigent and Sanctimonious)

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adjective: refusing to compromise: stubbornly or unreasonably refusing even to consider changing a decision or attitude
noun: unyielding person: somebody who refuses to compromise or change an attitude or decision, especially in politics

Synonyms: unyielding, adamant, difficult, determined, obstinate,

Antonyms: yielding, compromising

– Convinced he was right, George became intransigent and would not listen to anyone else’s opinion.
– Steve’s intransigent behavior made it difficult for other people to work with him, because when he fixed his mind on an idea, he wouldn’t compromise.
– The negotiations came to a halt when Mary and Ted took intransigent positions.
– The one, intransigent jury member who refused to agree with the others caused a mistrial.
– Unions claim that the management continues to maintain an intransigent position.

SANCTIMONIOUS (adjective) over-the-top pious and religious, to the point of appearing or sounding self-righteous and hypocritical

Synonyms: holier-than-thou, self-righteous, preachy, pious, smug, hypocritical, slick, phony, insincere, deceptive

Antonyms: sincere, humble

– Eric’s speech about the sanctity of marriage came across as sanctimonious to the young couple.
– Ray’s sanctimonious attitude made people think he was judgmental and that he felt superior to others.
– Because John stooped to sanctimony, he lost his credibility in the argument
– Jane’s sanctimonious attitude and constant preaching about the ills of alcohol, all while she ate nothing but junk food, were too much to bear.

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JV581 (Pristine and Undermine)

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PRISTINE (adjective) 1 in its original condition. 2 clean and fresh as if new. 1. completely free from dirt and contamination; 2. clean and unused
Synonyms: pure, clean, unsullied, untarnished, perfect
Antonyms: dirty, spoiled, tarnished
Tips: Pristine is a more sophisticated and also a stronger way of saying “perfect,” “pure,” and “clean.”
– John bought the landrover because it was in pristine condition.
– Because of his pristine credit, John was pre-approved for car finance.
– The once-pristine mountainside is now covered with hotels and cabins.
– Margo’s house was always in pristine condition, and she hated to have company in fear of creating a mess.

UNDERMINE (verb): erode the base or foundation of (a rock formation). 2 dig or excavate beneath (a building or fortification) so as to make it collapse. 2 weaken gradually or insidiously.

Synonyms: weaken, corrode, soften, impair, thwart, undercut, tunnel, wreck
Antonyms: strengthen, fortify, encourage
Tips: To help you remember the definition for undermine, picture how mining under a structure would weaken its foundation. Undermine is generally used figuratively to refer to actions that weaken an abstract structure, like authority. Undermining is generally done through subtle means, like manipulation or underhanded comments.
– Many people feel that political contributions from special interest groups undermine the democratic process.
– Kevin hoped no one would undermine his point by disputing the facts he presented.
– Jane and Terry work hard not to undermine one another’s authority in front of their children
– The principal undermined the teacher’s authority by questioning her teaching style in front of her students.
– The President has accused two cabinet ministers of working secretly to undermine his position/him.?- John just wanted to give his colleagues some positive feedback but unfortunately it undermined their confidence.

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JV580 (Preeminent and Stipulate)

PREEMINENT (adjective) highest in superiority or achievement and standing out above all others. Superior to or notable above all others; outstanding.
highly distinguished or outstanding: standing out among all others because of superiority in a field or activity
Synonyms: predominant, superior, foremost, leading, distinguished, highest, above.
Antonyms: inferior, humble, undistinguished
Tips: Preeminent originates from the Latin word eminere, “to stand out.” A preeminent person in his or her field stands out above all others, usually because of some notable achievement.
– The scientist was the preeminent expert on the behaviour of chimpanzees and there are fascinating lectures of him on YouTube
– I chose my stock broker based on his reputation for being a preeminent financial adviser who has helped many clients reach their financial goals.
– The professor is the preeminent authority on that subject, and you’ll learn more about it from him than anyone else.
– It should be interesting to meet him, as he is the preeminent authority in child psychology.
– Daniel’s pre-eminence in his subject is internationally recognized.
– Daniel is the pre-eminent authority in his subject.

1. to state how to do something in exact terms; 2. to specify a necessary condition (of a contract or agreement); 3. to give a guarantee or promise
Synonyms: specify, state, spell out, say, explain, define, designate, indicate, agree to, qualify, guarantee, promise
Antonyms: generalize, guess
Tips: Stipulate is derived from the Latin stipulari, which means “make a promise exact.” Think of spelling out the conditions of an agreement in exact terms; you stipulate the conditions.
– The president will give the company a loan, but he did not stipulate as to how they should use it.
– The new contract will stipulate the terms agreed on by buyer and seller
– My grandpa stipulated that most of his fortune should be given to charities
– SyncMyMail stipulates that if the customer is not satisfied with hosted Exchange in 30 days, he or she can get his/her money back .
– There was a stipulation that the land be used as a park.
– State laws stipulate that public education be free.

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JV579 (Pander and Ruminate)


(pander to) gratify or indulge (an immoral or distasteful desire or habit). to facilitate the fulfillment of others’ or another’s desire, especially one of questionable appropriateness or morality
Synonyms: solicit, procure, provide, pimp, indulge, gratify, cater to
Antonyms: reject, deny
– Despite Adam’s better judgment, Eve pandered to her own needs.
– Donald’s manager was not able to control the his employees because he tended to pander to their every demand.
– Jenny panders to her boss by complimenting his new tie, suit and haircut.
– If a politician panders to too many different groups, it’s impossible to tell what he stands for.

RUMINATE (verb) 1. to consider something deeply and carefully; 2. to re-chew partially digested food–refers to cows and other ruminants. To turn a matter over and over in the mind. To chew cud.
Synonyms: mull, brainstorm, contemplate, consider, ponder,
Antonyms: forget, ignore
– She spent the last year ruminating over which college to attend after graduation.
– When his lost the election The candidate ruminated over what he should do next.
– The cows grazed on the hillside and ruminated their food in a relaxed manner.
– The priest hoped that the congregation would spend the remainder of the week ruminating the message of his sermon
– Jenny ruminated too much over it and she never make a decision.

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JV578 (Interim and Rash)

INTERIM (noun, adjective)
(adj.) serving du ring an intermediate interval of time; (n.) the time between one event or period and another

Synonyms: (adj.) temporary, transitional, acting, pro tem, (n.) meantime, interval
Antonyms: permanent

Tips: Interim is often used in the phrase: “in the interim.” It’s a more sophisticated way to say, “in the meantime.” Interim can also refer to an official who is standing in for another official for a brief period of time.

– When the coach of the Dutch team broke his leg, Ruud Gullit was appointed interim coach.
– John had to rely on an interim solution until the full system was configured.
– Bonny is waiting for the final approval on the construction project. In the interim, she build a jacuzzi in her own garden.
– Mike will serve as Apple’s interim CEO until a Steve Jobs returns from his sabbatical year in India.

(adj.) thoughtless or rushed action without consideration of consequences; (n.) a series of occurrences, usually unexpected and unpleasant
Synonyms: (adj.) thoughtless, hasty, impetuous, reckless, ill-considered, imprudent, (n.) outbreak
Antonyms: (adj.) cautious, thoughtful, responsible
Tips:If something is done in a rash manner, it usually implies haste, recklessness, and speed.
-The president regretted taking such rash action once he came to his senses.
– Even though Adam’s dad thought his decision to quit his job was rather rash, he still felt sorry for him when he had trouble finding another position.
– The recent rash of burglaries in the neighborhood left the community feeling vulnerable.
– Although his decision seemed rash at first, it proved to be a good one for the company’s future.

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JV587 (Indigent and Savory)
JV586 (Repertoire and Vigilant)
JV585 (Pungent and Stolid)
JV584 (Preclude and Spendthrift)
JV583 (Myopic and Sodden)
JV582 (Intransigent and Sanctimonious)
JV581 (Pristine and Undermine)
JV580 (Preeminent and Stipulate)
JV579 (Pander and Ruminate)
JV578 (Interim and Rash)

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